Prince 2 Notes: Change

April 26, 2011

Issues and Changes

  • Change is inevitable

Projects need a systematic method for managing change

Change management is a continual activity

Issue: Deffinition

An issue is an event that was

  • not planned
  • requires management action

Issues can be raised by anyone

Types of Issues

  1. Off Specification (Off Spec): any product that is missing / not meeting agreed specification
  2. Request for Change (RfC): proposed change from baseline
  3. Problem / Concern (P/C): any other problem / concern / query / suggestion

Change Control

Systematic change control keeps project:

  • Responsive to change
  • Under control

Ensures change is

  • Authorised by appropriate authority
  • Considered in relation to baseline

Procedures ensure that issues and changes are:

  • Identified
  • Assessed
  • Approved / rejected
  • Implemented

Configuration Management

Products are versioned (i.e. kept in configuration management)

Mechanism to track configuration:

  • Creation
  • Maintenance
  • Control

Configuration Item

Something subject to configuration management, such as:

  • A product
  • A component of a product
  • A set of products that form a release


A set of products that are managed, tested and deployed as a unit

Management Products (Documents)

  • Configuration Management Strategy
  • Configuration Item Records
  • Product Status Accounts
  • Daily Log
  • Issue Register
  • Issue Reports

Configuration Management Strategy

Facilitates impact assessments (relationships between products)

Maintains product baselines

Based on corporate or programme strategy where these exist


  • How:
    • Management procedure
    • Issue / Change control procedure
      • Identify
      • Propose
      • Decide
      • Implement
  • What: Tools and techniques
  • Why: Records and Reporting
  • When: Timing
  • Who: Roles and responsibilities

Defines levels:

  • Priority
  • Severity

e.g. MoSCoW

Change Authority

Who has responsibility at each severity Project Board, PM, etc.

Change Budget

Funding for the costs of change

Managed by Change Authority

Limits can be specified for:

  • Costs of single change
  • Total spend on change in stage

Configuration Item Records

Include information on:

  • Status
  • Version
  • Variant
  • Relationships between items

Product Status Account

State of products

Daily Log

Records problems and concerns that can be handled by PM informally

Can be transferred to Issue Register if required

Issue Register

Contains information on issues managed formally

Monitored by PM regularly

Issue Report

Only required for formal issues, these include:

  • Description
  • Impact assessment
  • Recommendations

Configuration Management Procedure


  • Decide level of configuration management required
  • And how that level will be achieved


All components of products at level of control


Ability to:

  • Approve products
  • Baseline products (old baselines are archived, not deleted)
  • Ensure changes are authorised by appropriate authorities

Products include:

  • Management products (inc documentation)
  • Specialist products

Status Accounting

Reporting on current and historical data re: product

Verification and Audit

Two purposes:

  • Comparing actual and authorised status of products.
  • Check procedures in Configuration Management Strategy are followed

Occur at end of stage and end of project

Issue and Change Control Procedure

Defined by IP process

Reviewed and updated during MSB process


  • Type of Issue – formal / informal
  • Determine severity / priority
  • Level of authority
  • Formal issues -> Issue Register
  • Issue Report created


  1. Impact of analysis cost
  2. Impact analysis on project objectives / business case / project risk profile
  3. Impact on supplier / user / business
  4. Update Issue Register / Issue Report


  1. Identify options
  2. Evaluate options
  3. Recommend options
  4. Risk
  5. Exception Report?



  • Approve
  • Reject
  • Request info
  • Defer
  • Escalate


  • Grant Concession
  • Resolve
  • Defer
  • Request info
  • Escalate

Problem / concern

  • Provide guidance
  • Escalate


  • Take corrective action
  • Create an exception plan

Update issue register

Budget Options

Some changes impact budget

Illegitimate Options

Using Tolerance to fund Changes

Legitimate Options

Using Change Budget

Increase project cost

Reducing project scope